Louis Braille invented this writing system, which is typically read with fingertips, in the 1800s as a student attending the National Institute for Blind Youth in Paris. He didn't invent the concept of a written communication system that didn't rely on vision, but he greatly improved what was available at the time, making it faster to create and consume. His system evolved from a code for sending military messages that could be read at night, called Ecriture Nocturne, explains the American Foundation for the Blind.
The Braille system is a versatile way of improving literacy and access to materials, but it is not used by everyone who is blind. Despite common misconceptions, some estimates state that about 10% of students who are blind are taught Braille today.
Braille is often confused as a language, but it is not a language at all. Instead, Braille provides a code that allows for its use in many languages, as well as mathematics, music, and more.